The Benefits Of Glutathione


Antioxidants play an important role in our daily life, because they help reduce oxidative damage caused by free radicals. In this way, they protect our cells (1, 2).

Glutathione is an antioxidant that is talked about a lot, in this article we will evaluate the scientific information to understand that it is more common than we think, and I am sure that we all consume it on a daily basis. Glutathione (or also called GSH) is a tripeptide, that is, it is made up of 3 amino acids such as L-cysteine, L-glutamic acid and L-glycine, and it has been widely studied (3, 4). There are two different forms of GSH; Reduced GSH (or L-glutathione), which is the active form, and oxidized GSH (GSSG), the inactive form. As GSH circulates through our body, it regulates the damage caused by free radicals and is oxidized and inactivated to become GSSG (3). Interestingly, inactive GSSG can be recycled back into the active form of GSH thanks to an enzyme called glutathione reductase (3, 4). GSH plays a critical role in reducing oxidative stress, enhancing metabolic detoxification, and regulating the immune system (5). GSH enhances the antioxidant action of vitamins C and E, as well as alpha lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 (6).

Glutathione (GSH), unlike most antioxidants that come from plant sources, is produced by our body naturally in the liver. Therefore, it is found mainly within our cells and in bile, but it is also circulating in our body through plasma (7). It has been observed that the amount of GSH is generally reduced in the body due to various diseases (8, 9), but it is also quantified in the body as a marker for some diseases (10). Due to the nature of glutathione (GSH), made up of 3 amino acids, it has been reported to have a low bioavailability after being consumed orally, meaning that most glutathione is denatured in the stomach (11, 12). Indeed, either you need to consume a high amount of glutathione per day or you need to consume other substances that can naturally increase the production of GSH or that promote the conversion of the inactive form (GSSH) to the active form (GSH). Substances such as cysteine, glycine (11), and vitamin C (6) have been reported to help increase the natural production of glutathione. However, gamma-glutamyl cysteine ​​is the most effective way to increase cellular glutathione levels (13).

Also, regular physical activity increases the amount of glutathione (GSH) compared to sedentary people (14). In addition, there are several foods that promote the natural synthesis of GSH, because they naturally contain glutathione and at the same time cysteine, glycine and gamma-glutamyl cysteine, which are substances that increase the production of glutathione in our body (15). Some of these foods include asparagus, spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, pumpkin, pickle, carrot, parsley, tomato, bell pepper, potato, avocado or avocado, green beans, orange, lemon, grapefruit, mango, papaya, banana, and strawberry (15 ). For this reason, the Corporate Management of Scientific and Regulatory Affairs of Teoma Global requested the Quality Control Service Unit of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia to independently quantify the glutathione content in 9 Teoma products through a commercial kit. based on enzymatic reduction with DTNB (5,5′-Dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)).

The results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Glutathione (GSH) content in 9 Teoma food products.

It can be observed that the Teoma products evaluated contain glutathione values ​​comparable with natural sources such as asparagus (107 µg / g), spinach (96.2 µg / g), parsley (5.22 µg / g) and orange (1.54 µg / g) ( fifteen). Importantly, our Teoma products contain these and other natural sources of glutathione such as whey, which naturally contains glutathione and cysteine. In addition, as we previously reported, our products contain vitamin C, which is a glutathione precursor (activate the link: -immune-in-times-of-pandemic /). At Teoma we use science to create our products, but we also have several projects underway to continue providing scientific support to our food and cosmetic products. This allows us to speak substantively about the fact that glutathione is a more common antioxidant than we think and that we are consuming it daily in fruits, vegetables, whey and in our Teoma products. If you are looking to consume glutathione in a product, it is important to know if it contains it and in what quantity. Staying informed is your right as a consumer. Exercise and a varied diet are a key part of our recommendations at Teoma and both naturally increase your glutathione production. We invite you to continue practicing the Teoma lifestyle, to eat well and to consume our products that contain glutathione, because remember that with Teoma you live well!

By: Dr. Jaime A. Yáñez, Ph.D.
Corporative Manager
Scientific and Regulatory Affairs
Teoma Global

Bibliographic references:
1. Moloney JN, Cotter TG. ROS signaling in the biology of cancer. Seminars in cell & developmental biology. 2018; 80: 50-64.
2. Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, Arcoraci V, et al. Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2017; 2017: 8416763.
3. Gomez-Cabrera MC, Salvador-Pascual A, Cabo H, Ferrando B, Vina J. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training? Free radical biology & medicine. 2015; 86: 37-46.
4. Monostori P, Wittmann G, Karg E, Turi S. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in biological samples: an in-depth review. Journal of chromatography B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences. 2009; 877 (28): 3331-46.
5. Pizzorno J. Glutathione! Integrative medicine. 2014; 13 (1): 8-12.
6. Lu SC. Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Current topics in cellular regulation. 2000; 36: 95-116.
7. Jones DP. Redox potential of GSH / GSSG couple: assay and biological significance. Methods in enzymology. 2002; 348: 93-112.
8. Deponte M. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures? Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2017; 27 (15): 1130-61.
9. Karbassi I, Maston GA, Love A, DiVincenzo C, Braastad CD, Elzinga CD, et al. A Standardized DNA Variant Scoring System for Pathogenicity Assessments in Mendelian Disorders. Human mutation. 2016; 37 (1): 127-34.
10. Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurjian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, et al. Glutathione as a Marker for Human Disease. Advances in clinical chemistry. 2018; 87: 141-59.
11. Allen J, Bradley RD. Effects of Oral Glutathione Supplementation on Systemic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Human Volunteers. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2011; 17 (9): 827-33.
12. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1992; 43 (6): 667-9.
13. Zarka MH, Bridge WJ. Oral administration of γ-glutamylcysteine ​​increases intracellular glutathione levels above homeostasis in a randomized human trial pilot study. Redox Biology. 2017; 11: 631-6.
14. Nyberg M, Mortensen SP, Cabo H, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Vina J, Hellsten Y. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle. Free radical biology & medicine. 2014; 73: 166-73.
15. Demirkol O, Adams C, Ercal N. Biologically important thiols in various vegetables and fruits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2004; 52 (26): 8151-4.

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